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Muslim Spain

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muslim spain
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Islam in Spain started with the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Umayyads. This put an end to the Visigoth Kingdom.

This conquest resulted in the collapse of the Visigoth Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Cordoba under the leadership of Abdurrahman I, who ensured the unification of the regions ruled by the Muslims. This conquest determined the borders that the Umayyads and Muslims ruled in the westernmost part of Europe.

During the reign of Walid I, the sixth Umayyad caliph, in early 711, Tarik bin Ziyad landed in Gibraltar at the head of an army of North African Berbers. After winning a decisive victory over the Visigoth Rodrigo in the Battle of Guadelete, Tariq bin Ziyad continued to advance north with the support of the Arab troops under the command of Musa bin Nusayr. By 717, Arab-Berber forces had crossed the Pyrenees and reached Septimania. Thus, Islam began in Spain.

Andalusia Umayyad State

After the Andalusian Umayyads, the Abbasids put an end to the Umayyad dynasty, Abdurrahman, the grandson of the 10th Umayyad caliph Hisham bin Abdulmelik and the son of Muaviye bin Hisham, went to Spain and founded the Andalusian Umayyad State here in 756. Abdurrahman fought against the Abbasids and gained success against the Franks.

The Umayyads had established complete Islamic domination in Spain. However, over time, the rulers who came to power gave up the jihad and began to enjoy themselves in the palaces. The period of destruction began due to the fights for the throne, their love, and the shedding of brotherly blood. The Christian unions that developed around the country became more powerful over time.

With the marriage of Ferdinand, the king of Aragon, and Isabel I, the queen of Castile, and the unification of their armies, the Christians became stronger and expelled the Jews and Muslims from Andalusia. The Jews and Muslims, who were saved by a navy under the command of Kemal Reis. Then, brought to the east with  ships.

The heyday of Andalusian Umayyads III. Abdurrahman (912-961) and II. Referee (961-976) times. When Abdurrahman also used the title of caliph, three caliphs emerged for the first time in the history of Islam, including the Abbasids, the Andalusian Umayyads and the Fatimids.

Their Rulers

There are many caliphs in the Andalusian Umayyad State. Between 756 and 1031, there are names such as:

  1. Abdurrahman, 756-788
  2. Hişam, 788–796
  3. Hakem, 796–822
  4. Abdurrahman, 822–852
  5. Muhammad, 852–886
  6. Mündhir, 886–888
  7. Abdullah bin Muhammed, 888–912
  8. Abdurrahman, 912–929
  9. Abdurrahman, halife olarak, 929–961
  10. Hakem, 961–976
  11. Hişam, 976–1008
  12. Muhammed, 1008–1009
  13. Süleyman, 1009–1010
  14. Hişam, (ikinci kez), 1010–1012

There are other caliphs as well. After 1031, Umayyad State of Andalusia was destroyed, after which Tavaif-i Mülük was established.

Tavaif-i Mülük in Spain

Islam in Spain in 711 Tariq b. Ziyad’s, with capture of this place. After a while, the Andalusian Umayyads were established. After it was destroyed in 1031, Tavaif-i Mülük period started.

Tavaif-i Müluk is also known as Mülûkü’t Tavaif. It is the term used for the Muslim emirates that were established in the Iberian Peninsula after the collapse of the Andalusian Umayyad State in 1031 and ruled between 1031 and 1090.

The last caliph of the Andalusian Umayyad State, III. When Hisham renounced the kingship and caliphate in 1031, the lands of Andalusia were divided into many independent states. These statelets both started to fight among themselves and faced the attacks of the Christian statelets of Spain.

Some tawa states used Christian knights in their armies in return for money. For example, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, known as El Cid, is among the most famous of them. This confusion precipitated the Reconquista and weakened the presence of Islam in Spain.

In 1085-1090, the Almoravids from North Africa destroyed the states of Tayfa and managed to gather the Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula under one flag again.

Reconquista

This is the name given to the aims and efforts of ending the Muslim era in Spain and eliminating the existence of the Muslims in the peninsula. Reconquista means “re-conquest” in Spanish.

The Iberian Peninsula, where Muslims set foot in 711, remained under Islamic rule until 1492. Muslims had many-sided relations with the Christians and Jews who were there. After all, the sun of civilization shining in the Eastern Islamic world reached its zenith in Andalusia.

What changed this fact, which almost all the Andalusian historians of the modern era accept, was the Christian Reconquista, which started as early as 718 in the Covadonga Caves in the mountains of Northern Spain, under the leadership of Pelayo. In the three phases from 718 to 1085, the first, from 1085 to 1238, and from 1238 to 1492, the Reconquista process was completed.

In 1492, Islamic rule ended in Spain. After that, the who stayed there were expelled from the country from time to time, while Muslims (Mudejars) were expelled from the country until 1610. Among these communities called Andalusian Immigrants, there was no one who accepted Jews, especially in the world of that time, except the powerful Ottoman State.

On January 2, 1492, the Emirate of Granada was handed over to the Spaniards by Emir Abu Abdullah. This event is considered the last step of the Reconquista. An edict issued in 1508 stipulated that Muslims should abandon their own clothes and dress like Christians within 6 years. For nearly a century, three million Muslims were either exiled, converted to Christianity, or put to the sword.

Palaces, which are architectural marvels, were burned, libraries with hundreds of thousands of books were burned and plundered. Of this destruction, only the Great Mosque of Cordoba and al-Kasr, that is, the Alkazar Palace, the ruins of Medinettu’z-Zehra, the Alhambra Palace and Cennetü’l-arif Palace in Gırnata (Granada) are in Córdoba and are currently used as a cathedral.

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muslim spain
muslim spain

Islam in Spain started with the conquest of the Iberian Peninsula by the Umayyads. This put an end to the Visigoth Kingdom.

This conquest resulted in the collapse of the Visigoth Kingdom and the establishment of the independent Emirate of Cordoba under the leadership of Abdurrahman I, who ensured the unification of the regions ruled by the Muslims. This conquest determined the borders that the Umayyads and Muslims ruled in the westernmost part of Europe.

During the reign of Walid I, the sixth Umayyad caliph, in early 711, Tarik bin Ziyad landed in Gibraltar at the head of an army of North African Berbers. After winning a decisive victory over the Visigoth Rodrigo in the Battle of Guadelete, Tariq bin Ziyad continued to advance north with the support of the Arab troops under the command of Musa bin Nusayr. By 717, Arab-Berber forces had crossed the Pyrenees and reached Septimania. Thus, Islam began in Spain.

Andalusia Umayyad State

After the Andalusian Umayyads, the Abbasids put an end to the Umayyad dynasty, Abdurrahman, the grandson of the 10th Umayyad caliph Hisham bin Abdulmelik and the son of Muaviye bin Hisham, went to Spain and founded the Andalusian Umayyad State here in 756. Abdurrahman fought against the Abbasids and gained success against the Franks.

The Umayyads had established complete Islamic domination in Spain. However, over time, the rulers who came to power gave up the jihad and began to enjoy themselves in the palaces. The period of destruction began due to the fights for the throne, their love, and the shedding of brotherly blood. The Christian unions that developed around the country became more powerful over time.

With the marriage of Ferdinand, the king of Aragon, and Isabel I, the queen of Castile, and the unification of their armies, the Christians became stronger and expelled the Jews and Muslims from Andalusia. The Jews and Muslims, who were saved by a navy under the command of Kemal Reis. Then, brought to the east with  ships.

The heyday of Andalusian Umayyads III. Abdurrahman (912-961) and II. Referee (961-976) times. When Abdurrahman also used the title of caliph, three caliphs emerged for the first time in the history of Islam, including the Abbasids, the Andalusian Umayyads and the Fatimids.

Their Rulers

There are many caliphs in the Andalusian Umayyad State. Between 756 and 1031, there are names such as:

  1. Abdurrahman, 756-788
  2. Hişam, 788–796
  3. Hakem, 796–822
  4. Abdurrahman, 822–852
  5. Muhammad, 852–886
  6. Mündhir, 886–888
  7. Abdullah bin Muhammed, 888–912
  8. Abdurrahman, 912–929
  9. Abdurrahman, halife olarak, 929–961
  10. Hakem, 961–976
  11. Hişam, 976–1008
  12. Muhammed, 1008–1009
  13. Süleyman, 1009–1010
  14. Hişam, (ikinci kez), 1010–1012

There are other caliphs as well. After 1031, Umayyad State of Andalusia was destroyed, after which Tavaif-i Mülük was established.

Tavaif-i Mülük in Spain

Islam in Spain in 711 Tariq b. Ziyad’s, with capture of this place. After a while, the Andalusian Umayyads were established. After it was destroyed in 1031, Tavaif-i Mülük period started.

Tavaif-i Müluk is also known as Mülûkü’t Tavaif. It is the term used for the Muslim emirates that were established in the Iberian Peninsula after the collapse of the Andalusian Umayyad State in 1031 and ruled between 1031 and 1090.

The last caliph of the Andalusian Umayyad State, III. When Hisham renounced the kingship and caliphate in 1031, the lands of Andalusia were divided into many independent states. These statelets both started to fight among themselves and faced the attacks of the Christian statelets of Spain.

Some tawa states used Christian knights in their armies in return for money. For example, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar, known as El Cid, is among the most famous of them. This confusion precipitated the Reconquista and weakened the presence of Islam in Spain.

In 1085-1090, the Almoravids from North Africa destroyed the states of Tayfa and managed to gather the Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula under one flag again.

Reconquista

This is the name given to the aims and efforts of ending the Muslim era in Spain and eliminating the existence of the Muslims in the peninsula. Reconquista means “re-conquest” in Spanish.

The Iberian Peninsula, where Muslims set foot in 711, remained under Islamic rule until 1492. Muslims had many-sided relations with the Christians and Jews who were there. After all, the sun of civilization shining in the Eastern Islamic world reached its zenith in Andalusia.

What changed this fact, which almost all the Andalusian historians of the modern era accept, was the Christian Reconquista, which started as early as 718 in the Covadonga Caves in the mountains of Northern Spain, under the leadership of Pelayo. In the three phases from 718 to 1085, the first, from 1085 to 1238, and from 1238 to 1492, the Reconquista process was completed.

In 1492, Islamic rule ended in Spain. After that, the who stayed there were expelled from the country from time to time, while Muslims (Mudejars) were expelled from the country until 1610. Among these communities called Andalusian Immigrants, there was no one who accepted Jews, especially in the world of that time, except the powerful Ottoman State.

On January 2, 1492, the Emirate of Granada was handed over to the Spaniards by Emir Abu Abdullah. This event is considered the last step of the Reconquista. An edict issued in 1508 stipulated that Muslims should abandon their own clothes and dress like Christians within 6 years. For nearly a century, three million Muslims were either exiled, converted to Christianity, or put to the sword.

Palaces, which are architectural marvels, were burned, libraries with hundreds of thousands of books were burned and plundered. Of this destruction, only the Great Mosque of Cordoba and al-Kasr, that is, the Alkazar Palace, the ruins of Medinettu’z-Zehra, the Alhambra Palace and Cennetü’l-arif Palace in Gırnata (Granada) are in Córdoba and are currently used as a cathedral.

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